A comparison of the different interpretations of the shema

For access of papers with restricted access please contact me: As an effort to follow Ockham's advice, and reduce the number of concepts involved in my Dual-Aspect Theory of moral behavior, and to make my theory, as Popper reminds us, more informative and better testable, I have made a few terminological changes over the past four decades of research:

A comparison of the different interpretations of the shema

The obligation to recite the Shema is separate from the obligation to pray and a Jew is obligated to say Shema in the morning and at night Deut. It is said in the morning blessings, in the musaf Amidah of Shabbat and holidays, when the Torah is taken out of the Ark on Shabbat and holidays, as a bedtime prayer, as part of the deathbed confessional, and at various other times.

The commandment of saying Shema is fulfilled by reciting it in the shacharit and maariv services. The Shema should be said more audibly that the Amidah.

Since the Shema reaffirms the basic tenets of Jewish faith, it is important to hear clearly what one is saying. The Shema may be said while standing or sitting. In the ninth century, the Karaite sect used the practice of standing to claim that only the Shema passages of the Torah were of divine origin, so Jewish leaders stopped standing.


Today, some Reform and Conservative congregations stand out of respect for the Shema. Orthodox congregations sit because the passages are from the Torah so it is as if a person is studying Torah when he or she recites them, and sitting is the position for study.

In the third paragraph of the Shema, when the word " tzitzit " is said three times and when the word "emet" is said at the end, it is customary to kiss the fringes as a sign of affection for the commandments. This indicates that the worshiper dedicates his or her whole body to serving God.

With a minyan, the chazzan repeats the end of the Shema so this phrase is unnecessary. Jewish law requires a greater measure of concentration on the first verse of the Shema than on the rest of the prayer. People commonly close their eyes or cover them with the palm of their hand while reciting it to eliminate every distraction and help them concentrate on the meaning of the words.

The final word, echad, should be prolonged and emphasized. Often, the last letter of the first and last words of the Shema verse are written in larger print in the siddur. The next line of the Shema originated in the ancient Temple service. This line became incorporated as the second line of the daily Shema.

To indicate that it is not part of the Biblical passage of the Shema, it is said quietly, except for on Yom Kippur when it is recited out loud. The three paragraphs of the Shema, comprised of biblical verses, were also said in the daily Temple service. The first paragraph is the continuation of the Shema verse, from Deuteronomy 6: The second passage is from Deuteronomy The third paragraph is from Numbers It mentions the exodus from Egypt, which Jews are obligated to refer to each day.

The last word of the Shema, "emet" truth is actually part of the next blessing and is not part of the Biblical passage. It is said as part of the Shema so that one can declare, "Hashem, your God, is true" Adonai eloheichem emet. In Reform prayer books, the second paragraph of the Shema is often omitted because the doctrine of retribution is different in the Reform movement.

The third paragraph is also left out because Reform Jews do not accept the commandment regarding fringes. Reform prayer books do include the end of this third section, from Numbers The Complet Artscroll Siddur.

Mesorah Publications, Ltd, Cardin, Rabbi Nina Beth. The Tapestry of Jewish Time.The Ten Commandments (Hebrew: עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת ‬, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and timberdesignmag.com commandments include instructions to worship only God, to honour one's parents, and to keep the sabbath, as well as prohibitions against.

In this Bible Scholars article, "The Lord's Prayer and the Amidah: A Comparative Analysis", guest author, Rachel D. Levine, writes: "What were the disciples asking in Luke 11 when they said to Jesus, 'Lord, teach us to pray as John also taught his disciples'?

Obviously, they had spent a lot of time with him and were familiar with his . The Shema is the centerpiece of the daily morning and evening prayer services and is considered by some the most essential prayer in all of Judaism.

An affirmation of God’s singularity and kingship, its daily recitation is regarded by traditionally observant Jews as a biblical commandment.

A comparison of the different interpretations of the shema

The. Interpretations; Biblical Scholarship ; Sexual Prohibitions in the Bible and the ANE: A Comparison (though this appears in a different document, discussed below) or anything beyond the nuclear family.

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Affines. The Shema's Second Paragraph: Concern Over Israel's Affluence;. Ideas for moral competence research. Moral CompetenceTest (MCT) Konstanz Method of Dilemma Discussion (KMDD) Improvement of Teaching Through Self-Monitored Evaluation (ITSE). Downloadable papers (restricted). For access of papers with restricted access please contact me.

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Shema Yisrael - Wikipedia