These exercises included hotly contested disagreements over big issues and small. Some questions were quite specific, such as the proper placement of the Fool within the series of allegorical images. One post would claim that the Fool was "obviously" the first, another would point to the numbering and insist that the Magician was certainly first so the Fool must be last, as in some early listings and later decks. Dedicated occultists claimed that the proper placement was next to last, while others noted his unique role in the game and denied that he had any allegorical role or place in the series.
Etymology[ edit ] The word tarot and German Tarock derive from the Italian tarocchi, the origin of which is uncertain but taroch was used as a synonym for foolishness in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The new name first appeared in Brescia around as tarocho.
This coincided with the older game being renamed tarocchi. History[ edit ] Milanese tarocchi, c. Playing cards first entered Europe in the late 14th century, most likely from Mamluk Egyptwith suits of Batons or Polo sticks commonly known as Wands by those practicing occult or divinatory tarotCoins commonly known as disks, or pentacles in occult or divinatory tarotSwords, and Cups.
These suits were very similar to modern tarot divination decks and are still used in traditional ItalianSpanish and Portuguese playing card decks. These new decks were called carte da trionfi, triumph cards, and the additional cards known simply as trionfiwhich became "trumps" in English.
The earliest documentation of trionfi is found in a written statement in the court records of Florenceinregarding the transfer of two decks to Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta. He described a card deck with 16 cards having images of the Greek gods and suits depicting four kinds of birds.
The 16 cards were regarded as "trumps" since in Jacopo Antonio Marcello recalled that the now deceased duke had invented a novum quoddam et exquisitum triumphorum genus, or "a new and exquisite kind of triumphs".
This deck of 97 cards includes astrological symbols and the four elements, as well as traditional tarot motifs. It was only after the invention of the printing press that mass production of cards became possible. The expansion of tarot outside of Italy, first to France and Switzerland, occurred during the Italian Wars.
The most important tarot pattern used in these two countries was the Tarot of Marseilles of Milanese origin. Tarot card games A French tarot game in session The original purpose of tarot cards was to play games. A very cursory explanation of rules for a tarot-like deck is given in a manuscript by Martiano da Tortona before Vague descriptions of game play or game terminology follow for the next two centuries until the earliest known complete description of rules for a French variant in Tarocchini has survived in Bologna and there are still others played in Piedmont and Sicily, but in Italy the game is generally less popular than elsewhere.
Regional tarot games—often known as tarock, tarok, or tarokk are widely played in central Europe within the borders of the former Austro-Hungarian empire. Italian-suited tarot decks[ edit ] Tarocco Piemontese: These were the oldest form of tarot deck to be made, being first devised in the 15th century in northern Italy.
The so-called occult tarot decks are based on decks of this type. Three decks of this category are still used to play certain games: The Tarocco Piemontese consists of the four suits of swords, batons, cups and coins, each headed by a king, queen, cavalier and jack, followed by the pip cards for a total of 78 cards.
Trump 20 outranks 21 in most games and the Fool is numbered 0 despite not being a trump. The trumps rank in numerical order and the Tower is known as the House of God. The cards are not reversible like the Tarocco Piemontese.
The Tarocco Bolognese omits numeral cards two to five in plain suits, leaving it with 62 cards, and has somewhat different trumps, not all of which are numbered and four of which are equal in rank.
It has a different graphical design than the two above as it was not derived from the Tarot of Marseilles.
Italo-Portuguese-suited tarot deck[ edit ] The Tarocco Siciliano is the only deck to use the so-called Portuguese suit system which uses Spanish pips but intersects them like Italian pips. It omits the Two and Three of coins, and numerals one to four in clubs, swords and cups: The cards are quite small and not reversible.
With the exception of novelty decks, French-suited tarot cards are almost exclusively used for card games. Arounda greater variety of decks were produced, mostly with genre art or veduta. Current French-suited tarot decks come in these patterns:One of the earliest reference to Tarot triumphs, and probably the first reference to Tarot as the devil's picture book, is given by a Dominican preacher in a fiery sermon against the evils of .
Place's mostly accurate and exceptional book on Tarot history is a breath of fresh air. The earliest Tarot cards appeared in northern Italy during the 15th century and they were originally used to play a trick taking card game/5.
The first detailed reference to the Trumps of the Tarot is in the form of a sermon. This sermon, given by a Franciscan friar in Italy sometime between and , contends that the Trumps were invented and named by the Devil. During the 15th century, Italian artists crafted the four-suit tarot cards to play the game “tarocchi.” This game is similar to what we now consider bridge.
Towards the mids, the game evolved to include a permanent set of trump, or triumph cards that outranked all four suits. Sep 20, · Cherry Gilchrist begins Tarot Triumphs by asking us to imagine “The Pageant of the Trumps,” a triumphal procession like those that were popular in 15th century Italy, around the time that many believe the Tarot was born.
Apr 16, · Re: Earliest order of the triumphs #8 by Psykees During the 13thth centuries, Franciscan involvement with diplomacy (in terms of religious beliefs, war, and cultural exchange) between Western and Eastern Churches was matched only by that of Venetians (whose involvement also included money and trade).