Results are easy to read, and can be stored in the original for future reference Specificity and sensitivity Good. The test is therefore good for screening donor blood because of low false negatives. Very occasionally false positives occur as in most other HIV tests.
Davis First published online: November 2, DOI: An overall estimate of condom effectiveness for HIV prevention is needed. Methods Information on condom usage and HIV serology was obtained from 25 published studies of serodiscordant heterosexual couples.
Studies were stratified by design, direction of transmission and condom usage group. Condom efficacy was calculated from the HIV transmission rates for always-users and never-users.
Results For always-users, 12 cohort samples yielded a consistent HIV incidence of 0. For 11 cohort samples of never-users, incidence was estimated at 6. Conclusions Consistent use of condoms provides protection from HIV.
Thus, the condom's efficacy at reducing heterosexual transmission may be comparable to or slightly lower than its effectiveness at preventing pregnancy. Family Planning Perspectives,31 6: Heterosexual contact with an infected partner is the greatest risk factor for women and, consequently, for their newborn children.
Recommendations for the prevention of sexually transmitted HIV infection include abstinence, long-term monogamy with a seronegative partner, a limited number of lifetime sexual partners and condom use for each and every act of intercourse.
The effectiveness of the condom as a contraceptive provides insight into its usefulness as a barrier device capable of preventing HIV transmission. Defined as the proportionate reduction in pregnancies caused by use of a contraceptive method, effectiveness is estimated as one minus the ratio of two failure rates.
The failure rate ratio is calculated by dividing the pregnancy rate associated with use of a contraceptive method by the rate related to no method use for a given time period. The effectiveness of condoms in reducing HIV may be estimated in the same way as for contraception.
For HIV, the failure rate ratio is calculated by dividing the seroconversion rate among couples always using condoms by the rate among couples never using condoms. A comparison group of condom nonusers is essential to determine the reduction in HIV incidence that is due to condom use.
The best measure of condom efficacy is obtained by comparing monogamous, serodiscordant couples i. Since HIV serodiscordant couples cannot ethically be assigned at random to "always" and "never" use condoms, estimates must be obtained from observational studies.
Unfortunately, observational studies may be biased by an unequal distribution of HIV risk factors across study categories. For both contraception and HIV prevention, condom failure has two sources: User failure includes nonuse and incorrect use, and is attributed to the person using the condom.
Method failure is the absolute, theoretical failure inherent in the device, and is independent of the user.
User failure varies per person and per contact, while method failure is assumed to be constant. It is impossible to measure absolute method failure, since it is confounded with user failure.The Importance of Using a Condom In a recent study performed at the University of New Orleans by Dr.
Bruce M. King, only 20% of men reported using a condom consistently, while only 50% reported using protection with a new partner. the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States and reports over , new cases of STDs each year.
Given this stark reality, New York cannot afford to stand by in the face of a practice that. HIV/AIDS in South Africa.
HIV/AIDS is perceived to be more prevalent in South Africa than anywhere else worldwide. About 12% of the South African population is affected by HIV/AIDS; excluding children, that percentage rises to 18%.
Sep 22, · CASE 4 5 AIDS, Condoms, and Carnival Plus, Latin-style machismo leaves women with little bargain-ing power. Only 14 percent of Brazilian heterosexual men used condoms last year, according to AIDSCAP, an AIDS prevention. The free AIDS research paper (Case Study: Aids, Condoms, Carnival essay) presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service.
If you need fresh and competent research / writing on AIDS, use the professional writing service offered by our company.
Case settled with boxes of Durex condoms that went to the public. Lawsuits Federal Trade commission alleged that London International Group violated Sections 5(a) .