Ridges on Europa This view of Europa shows a portion of the surface that has been highly disrupted by fractures and ridges. This picture covers an area about kilometers miles wide by kilometers milesor about the distance between Los Angeles and San Diego.
These various fractures are thought to have been caused in large part by the tidal flexing exerted by Jupiter. Because Europa is tidally locked to Jupiter, and therefore always maintains the same approximate orientation towards Jupiter, the stress patterns should form a distinctive and predictable pattern.
The full revolution of the outer rigid shell relative to the interior of Europa occurs over a minimum of 12, years. Together, the evidence for crustal spreading at bands  and convergence at other sites  marks the first evidence for plate tectonics on any world other than Earth.
List of geological features on Europa Left: Other features present on Europa are circular and elliptical lenticulae Latin for "freckles".
Many are domes, some are pits and some are smooth, dark spots. Others have a jumbled or rough texture. The dome tops look like pieces of the older plains around them, suggesting that the domes formed when the plains were pushed up from below.
The rough, jumbled lenticulae called regions of "chaos"; for example, Conamara Chaos would then be formed from many small fragments of crust, embedded in hummocky, dark material, appearing like icebergs in a frozen sea.
Europa europa implication is that the ice is too thin to support the convective diapir model of feature formation. Galileo imaging team members argue for the existence of a subsurface ocean from analysis of Voyager and Galileo Europa europa. This interpretation is controversial. Most geologists who have studied Europa favor what is commonly called the "thick ice" model, in which the ocean has rarely, if ever, directly interacted with the present surface.
If the ice shell of Europa is really only a few kilometers thick, this "thin ice" model would mean that regular contact of the liquid interior with the surface could occur through open ridges, causing the formation of areas of chaotic terrain.
The most plausible candidate for this role is a large subsurface ocean of liquid saltwater. In order to generate colored tholins on Europa there must be a source of materials carbon, nitrogen, and water and a source of energy to make the reactions occur.
Impurities in the water ice crust of Europa are presumed both to emerge from the interior as cryovolcanic events that resurface the body, and to accumulate from space as interplanetary dust.
This generates so-called Rossby waves that travel quite slowly, at just a few kilometers per day, but can generate significant kinetic energy. For the current axial tilt estimate of 0.
Radioactive decay In addition to tidal heating, the interior of Europa could also be heated by the decay of radioactive material radiogenic heating within the rocky mantle. The only other moon in the Solar System exhibiting water vapor plumes is Enceladus.
Magnetic field around Europa. The red line shows a trajectory of the Galileo spacecraft during a typical flyby E4 or E The surface-bounded atmosphere forms through radiolysisthe dissociation of molecules through radiation. These chemical components are then adsorbed and " sputtered " into the atmosphere.
The same radiation also creates collisional ejections of these products from the surface, and the balance of these two processes forms an atmosphere. Because the surface may interact with the subsurface ocean considering the geological discussion abovethis molecular oxygen may make its way to the ocean, where it could aid in biological processes.
The first closeup photos were of low resolution compared to later missions. The images caused many scientists to speculate about the possibility of a liquid ocean underneath. Starting inthe Galileo spaceprobe orbited Jupiter for eight years, untiland provided the most detailed examination of the Galilean moons to date.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey. The Europa Clipper would not orbit Europa, but instead orbit Jupiter and conduct 45 low-altitude flybys of Europa during its envisioned mission. The probe would carry an ice-penetrating radar, short-wave infrared spectrometer, topographical imager, and an ion- and neutral-mass spectrometer.
Old proposals[ edit ] Left: Another concept was Ice Clipper,  which would have used an impactor similar to the Deep Impact mission—it would make a controlled crash into the surface of Europa, generating a plume of debris that would then be collected by a small spacecraft flying through the plume.
Instrument payload could include a radio subsystem, laser altimetermagnetometerLangmuir probeand a mapping camera.Lotus Returns to Formula 1. F-1 for Lotus Renault THE NEW Lotus Europa is introduced. Click on the Photo to be redirected to Group Lotus for Specifications. Check out the NEW Forum for Europa Owners Select the Forum button on the left.
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Europa [yur-ROH-pah] is a unique moon of Jupiter that has fascinated scientists for hundreds of years. Its surface is among the brightest in the solar system, a .
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A Europa é, por convenção, um dos seis continentes do mundo. Compreendendo a península ocidental da Eurásia, a Europa geralmente divide-se da Ásia a leste pela divisória de águas dos montes Urais, o rio Ural, o mar Cáspio, o Cáucaso,  e o mar Negro a sudeste.  A Europa é limitada pelo oceano Glacial Ártico e outros corpos . See lightning strikes in real time across the planet. Free access to maps of former thunderstorms. By timberdesignmag.com and contributors. Your health and nutrition distributor with more than 6, products representing + of the industry’s best brands.
Solomon Perel (Marco Hofschneider) is the son of a Jewish shoe salesman coming. Europa's trailing hemisphere in approximate natural color. The prominent crater in the lower right is Pwyll and the darker regions are areas where Europa's primarily water ice surface has a higher mineral content.
Imaged on 7 September by Galileo spacecraft.