In this section we are looking at the economic impact of Stalin's policies on Soviet Union. Upon taking over control, he sought to modernise Soviet Union by undertaking two policies: Reasons why Stalin wanted to carry out the economic policies:
This insecurity in the Soviet system was even further exacerbated by the rocky period of transition and the shaky events surrounding the succession of power.
However, when the dust settled and Josef Stalin emerged as the new leader of the Soviets, the course of Communist economic policies was clear and lofty were its goals. In the ensuing years, the effects of these policies would have a profound impact not only upon the Russian peoples, but the Soviet Republics as well.
Kazakhstan was no exception.
The two major policies stipulated in his First Five-Year Plans were extremely demanding and in the long run proved to be unattainable. Firstly, he called for the collectivization of all farmlands, thus transferring the control of all private farming into the hands of the Soviet leadership.
Secondly, Stalin called for the beginnings of major industrial development, especially in the areas of heavy industry. He further emphasized his call for massive industrialization when he spoke to his industrial managers in"We are years behind the advanced countries.
We must make good this lag in ten years. Either we do it, or they crush us! GOSPLAN's primary function was to set the annual quotas for the upcoming harvests and the production goals for the various industries.
These figures were then reported to Stalin who would in turn propose new policies and goals for the new year As time drew on in Stalin's First Five-Year Plan, it was becoming increasingly apparent to all the parties involved that major changes would have to be made in order to attain the lofty goals set by Stalin.
It was these major changes which would result in adverse effects upon the current nation of Kazakhstan. InStalin launched his campaign to "liquidate the kulaks as a class". Also known as "dekulakization", this process entailed the forcible removal of private landowners and their families in order to achieve the full publicizing of all arable lands.
Such actions on behalf of the Soviets predictably led to much resistance and chaos amidst the Russian countryside. Russian researcher Maureen Thorson recounts the facts and figures of the time period during dekulakization: A number of families-around ,also abandoned their land, seeking a refuge in the cities.
The repression of peasantry continued on a grand scale-as of 30 January, people had been arrested. Of those, 19, were shot. Kazakhstan not only bore the brunt of the eventual failure of collectization, but it was also a major recipient of these Russian immigrants.
Mikhail Alexandrov writes, "The collectivization of the early s and subsequent famine led to a significant fall in Kazakh numbers due to deaths and migration out of the USSR.
In combination with the inflow of new migrants this created a situation in which the Slavic and Kazakh populations were virtually equal in numbers, and the general trend was now working against the Kazakhs. This continued to be an issue for Kazakhstan well after the fall of the Soviet Empire.
It was not until that the Kazakhs regained majority status in their own nation. While the extent of the success or failure of Stalin's industrialization goals will never be known, due to falsification of numbers in order to avoid the steep punishments of not meeting the established quotas, there was definitely tangible success.
Marcin Wiesyk writes, "Russian manufacturing boomed during the Great Depression.
From to Russian national income rose from According to Gillette's study, Russia sent qualified industrial workers, engineers, technicians, plant managers, business executives, teachers and health care personnel into Kazakhstan in order to provide the necessary skills in order to carry on this industrialization.
While this did prove to be extremely beneficial to the Kazakhs, in the long run this was more of a curse than a blessing. After the fall of the Communist regime, Kazakhstan was left to find suitable workers for their industrial sector. Because of the former Russian dominance in Kazakh industry, this sudden emigration of Russian workers created a human capital void which the Kazakhs were left to fill.
This would do much to make the difficult task of reforming the post-Soviet Kazakh economy that much harder. Overall, Josef Stalin's economic policies set forth in his Five-Year Plans were met with hardship and failure for his people, the effects of which were felt by the nation of Kazakhstan for years far after his mandate of power ended.
The immigration into Kazakhstan caused by the failure of collectivization further widened the population gap between native Kazakh and alien Russians. This fact resulted in great difficulty once the fall of Soviet Russia required the formation of a new Kazakh government. In much the same way, industrialization in the Stalin era created effects which were felt far into the future.
By leaving the Kazakh industrial sector dependent on Russian expertise, the Soviets made the task of rebuilding a devastated economy all the more difficult, a task which continues to this day.From the very beginning, Stalin’s proposal of a Five-Year Plan for the Soviet Union economy was severely criticized.
Although many warned that the plan was unrealistic, irrational, and even mathematically impossible, Stalin went ahead and began his first Five-Year plan in Stalin: The First Five- Year Plans () The impact of the policies is examined in the table at the end. The impact of Lenin and Stalin’s policies on the rights of .
To what extent were Stalin’s 5-year plans successful in achieving rapid industrialization in the Soviet Union in ? The Marxist ideology states that a society going through industrialization is the only thing that will cause a revolutionary change.
In the ensuing years, the effects of these policies would have a profound impact not only upon the Russian peoples, but the Soviet Republics as well.
Kazakhstan was no exception. In , the Communist Party approved the first of Stalin's proposed Five-Year Plans. The Cold War and its Effects.
STUDY. PLAY. Stalin and the Soviet Union. ~The First Five-Year Plan Stalin established a command economy to modernize the Soviet economy-Believed the USSR could outproduce a capitalist nations-set unreasonably high quotas for production. The effects of his plan can be investigated through sources such as Stalin’s speech on the results of the first Five Year Plan, for a view on Stalin’s perspective of how successful the Five Year Plan was.
Stalin’s speech will be evaluated for its origin, purpose, values and limitations. Summary of Evidence Before Stalin, Russia existed in a poor state.